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Surprises:
-Gettysburg is so small and peaceful.

-Gettysburg became the home for President and Mrs. Dwight D. Eisenhower after his term as President.

-Of the over 51,000 casualties in the three day Battle of Gettysburg, only one civilian in the town of Gettysburg was killed - 20 year old Jenny Wade.



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Hardtack
Hardtack was a simple flour biscuit issued to Union soldiers throughout the war. Hardtack crackers made up a large portion of a soldier's daily ration. It was square or sometimes rectangular in shape with small holes baked into it, and similar to a large soda cracker. When freshly baked, they were quite tasty and satisfying. Baked in northern factories, they usually did not get to the soldiers until months after they had been made. They were very hard by that time; so hard that soldiers called them "tooth-dullers" and "sheet iron crackers."

Packed into large wooden crates, the soldiers were usually allowed six to eight crackers for a three-day ration. There were a number of ways to eat them, plain or prepared with other ration items. Soldiers would crumble them into coffee or soften them in water and fry the hardtack with some bacon grease. One favorite dish was fried pork with hardtack crumbled into the mixture. Called "skillygallee," it was a common and easily prepared meal.

5 Cups Flour (unbleached)
1 Tablespoon Baking Powder
1 Tablespoon Salt
1-1 1/4 cups Water

Preheat Oven to 450
F.

In a bowl, combine the ingredients to form a stiff, but not dry dough. The dough should be pliable, but not stick a lot to your hands.

Take this mound of dough, and flatten it out onto a greased cookie sheet (the ones with a small lip around the edge...like a really shallow pan), and roll the dough into a flat sheet approximately 1/2 inch thick.

Using a bread knife, divide the dough into 3x3 squares. taking a 10-penny nail, put a 3x3 matrix of holes into the surface of the dough, all the way through, at even intervals.

Bake in the oven for approximately 20 minutes until lightly browned. Take out and let cool.

Southern Johnnie Cakes

Many regions of the country had different types of cornbreads that were made during the Civil War.  This is a favorite southern recipe.

2 cups of cornmeal
2/3 cup of milk
2 tablespoons vegetable oil
2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon of salt

Mix ingredients into a stiff batter and form eight biscuit-sized "dodgers."
Bake on a lightly greased sheet at 350
F for twenty to twenty-five minutes or until brown.

Or spoon the batter into hot cooking oil in a frying pan over a low flame.
Optional: spread with a little butter or molasses, and you have a real southern treat!

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Gettysburg National Park Service Visitor's Center and Museum
Gettysburg Battlefield Tour with a licensed National Park Service battlefield guide
The famous Gettysburg Cyclorama
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Almost all American Christian Tours' Education Program trip extensions to Gettysburg will include:




Most, time permitting, will also include:


Standing on the top of Little Round Top and looking out on the battlefields below.
Walking through Gettysburg National Cemetery and quoting the Gettysburg Address
Reenacting Pickett's Charge at the Confederate Highwater Mark
Education Programs
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
800.222.2001
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In A Word:
Sacrifice.

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Be Prepared:
Watch:
Gettysburg, 1993, Turner Pictures.

Read:
Killer Angels, Michael Shaara; 1987, Ballantine Books
Memorize the Gettysburg Address.

Listen:
Civil War music. 

Eat:
Bake some Hardtack or some Southern Johnnie Cakes.  Recipes here.

Drink:
A lot of water.
Gettysburg is located in a portion of southeastern Pennsylvania known as the Piedmont plateau.  The region features rolling hills and small mountains.

To the northwest, there is a series of low, parallel ridges.  Seminary Ridge, closest to Gettysburg, is named for the Lutheran Theological Seminary on its crest. Farther out is South Mountain, the beginning of the Blue Ridge portion of the Appalachian Mountain chain.

Dominating the landscape are the Round Tops to the south. Little Round Top is a hill with a rugged, steep slope 130 feet above nearby Plum Run strewn with large boulders; to its southwest, the area with the most significant boulders - some the size of living rooms - is known as Devil's Den.  The valley formed by Plum Run between the Round Tops and Devil's Den earned the name Valley of Death during the Battle of Gettysburg.

Essentials:
Climate
Gettysburg's climate varies greatly.  In the winter it can be cold and bitter - temperatures rarely go above freezing.  Snow is also a likely possibility.  In the summer temperatures are usually hot and the air can be humid.  The best time to visit is in the spring and fall when the air is clear and the temperatures and precipitation mild.  Short heavy periods of rain are to be expected in the spring months.

Geography